Drug addiction recovery is a long-term process, and those who attempt to overcome their drug problems must be prepared for a challenging struggle. In the end, persistence and determination will make all the difference, and if people recovering from substance use disorders are strong enough to stay the course, a happy, healthy, drug-free future will be within their grasp.
Repeat on each part of your body that’s experiencing the craving. What changes occur in the sensations? Notice how the urge comes and goes. You’ll likely notice that after a few minutes the craving has gone. The purpose of urge surfing is not to make cravings disappear, but to experience them in a new way. However, with practice, you’ll learn how to ride your cravings out until they go away naturally.
There are many factors that contribute to drug addiction: genetic makeup, family background, social influences, neurological factors, and environmental issues. Having a close family member who is addicted to drugs, or growing up in an environment where drug use is widely accepted, can increase your chances of dependence and drug addiction. A co-occurring mental illness makes you vulnerable to addictive drug use.
It is important to recognise that without expert support, your alcohol addiction has the potential to become increasingly worse over time, resulting in a detrimental impact on all areas of your life including your ability to function, your relationships with others, your performance at work, and your general health and wellbeing. Untreated alcohol addiction may also lead to the development of drug addictions and other behavioural addictions. This why seeking expert help is crucial in order to overcome your alcohol addiction and resume the healthy, fulfilling, addiction-free life that you deserve. Best Drug Rehabilitation Programs Backed By Research. Find Out Why.
Instead, you should follow the procedures and mechanisms worked out during your therapy, and take all steps agreed upon to minimise your exposure to risk. During therapy you will have worked to identify triggers which can set off the desire to consume drugs; now, in the outside world, it is your responsibility to avoid those triggers in any way possible.
Support groups are the least-intensive type of drug rehab available. The Mental Health Institute states that support groups allow individuals to share experiences and stories with one another, thereby reducing loneliness and isolation. Support groups often prove to be an eye-opening experience, allowing patients to see that there are others in similar situations also fighting to heal.
As a person continues to use drugs, the brain adapts by reducing the ability of cells in the reward circuit to respond to it. This reduces the high that the person feels compared to the high they felt when first taking the drug—an effect known as tolerance. They might take more of the drug to try and achieve the same high. These brain adaptations often lead to the person becoming less and less able to derive pleasure from other things they once enjoyed, like food, sex, or social activities.

Many chronic conditions such as arthritis or diabetes carry a risk of recurrence, even after years of successful medical management. In a similar way, there will always be a possibility of relapse for those in recovery.1 However, finding a reputable treatment program that utilizes evidence-based treatment (and staying in treatment long enough—NIDA recommends at least 3 months) gives people a head start on sobriety and gives them the tools they'll need to prevent relapse.2

Alcohol is considered safe in moderation, but when occasional use becomes more common and begins to interfere with everyday life, it is typically classed as abuse. The UK Government’s guidelines on alcohol consumption states that no more than fourteen units of alcohol should be consumed by adult men and women each week; which means that consuming a large amount at one time (binge drinking), may still be considered abuse, without it being a regular occurrence. Drug Rehab Near Me
In a survey of treatment providers from three separate institutions, the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors, Rational Recovery Systems and the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, measuring the treatment provider's responses on the "Spiritual Belief Scale" (a scale measuring belief in the four spiritual characteristics of AA identified by Ernest Kurtz); the scores were found to explain 41% of the variance in the treatment provider's responses on the "Addiction Belief Scale" (a scale measuring adherence to the disease model or the free-will model of addiction).[30]
In keeping with the idea of dual diagnosis, it is clear that a big part of alcohol rehabilitation is improving mental health. Even people not clinically diagnosed with co-occurring disorders suffer mentally under the control of alcohol. This is why depression and anxiety are both warning signs of alcohol abuse. The fact is that alcohol affects how the mind works; it affects the thoughts and emotions. Addiction and Recovery: A How to Guide | Shawn Kingsbury | TEDxUIdaho
During the early stages of alcohol recovery, patients can be confused and scared. Their emotions can run high to the point that what they are thinking and feeling interferes with recovery. Meditation addresses these sorts of things. By helping patients relax and focus their thoughts inward, meditation eases patient fears and clears up confusion. Patients are more apt to benefit from treatment in this more relaxed state.

It is important to recognise that without expert support, your alcohol addiction has the potential to become increasingly worse over time, resulting in a detrimental impact on all areas of your life including your ability to function, your relationships with others, your performance at work, and your general health and wellbeing. Untreated alcohol addiction may also lead to the development of drug addictions and other behavioural addictions. This why seeking expert help is crucial in order to overcome your alcohol addiction and resume the healthy, fulfilling, addiction-free life that you deserve. Best Drug Rehabilitation Programs Backed By Research. Find Out Why.
^ Dutcher LW, Anderson R, Moore M, Luna-Anderson C, Meyers RJ, Delaney HD, Smith JE (Spring 2009). "Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT): An Effectiveness Study" (PDF). Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health Fitness and Behavioral Medicine. 2 (1): 82–93. ISSN 1946-7079. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2010.[unreliable source?] Alcoholism ¦ Treatment and Symptoms
Use any setbacks in recovery as a learning experience and recognise that while you may have made a mistake, you do not have to make it worse by continuing to drink. Get yourself to your nearest fellowship meeting or call your sponsor as soon as possible. You will then need to take a good look at what led to your setback. It is important that you take the time to do this so that you can avoid another occurrence in the future.
Drug rehabilitation success statistics are generally hard to obtain. Data does exist, however, to quantity the scope of addiction in the United States compared to the number of people who receive rehab drug treatment. The most recent national drug use report from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) states that only 19 percent (4 million) of the 23 million individuals who needed drug or alcohol abuse treatment within a particular year sought it.
Addiction can be terrifying. If you or someone that you care about has been struggling with a substance use disorder, then you are well aware of the devastating impact that this insidious disease can have on virtually all aspects of life. You know all about the sleepless nights, the despair-filled days, and the pervasive fear that, just when you think it cannot get any worse, it will.
Whether you’re seeking inpatient PTSD treatment, residential rehab for depression (inpatient treatment for depression), or any other inpatient mental health treatment, The Recovery Village’s programs can help. As an outpatient and inpatient facility, The Recovery Village is equipped to treat these disorders simultaneously with substance use disorders on an inpatient basis. Treating these conditions together is often the best way to achieve optimum results.

From the comfort of your home you can connect with the greater Aftercare community via our private online social network site. As an alumnus of our alcohol recovery program, you can also participate in our refresher weekend getaways. As part of the Smart Recovery community we run an Aftercare program that hosts virtual meetings all across Canada, England, the USA and Australia.
Since 2014, Addiction Center has been an informational web guide for those who are struggling with substance use disorders and co-occurring behavioral and mental health disorders. All content included on Addiction Center is created by our team of researchers and journalists. of our articles are fact-based and sourced from relevant publications, government agencies and medical journals.
What emerges from relationships with poorly defined boundaries is a survival mentality where family members assume roles to help cope with stress. Though these roles can temporarily lessen stress, they increase confusion and anxiety because the underlying issue of the substance use is never directly dealt with. Rehab can help you understand where these boundaries get tangled up and show you ways to keep them healthy.
The United States' approach to substance abuse has shifted over the last decade, and is continuing to change. The federal government was minimally involved in the 19th century. The federal government transitioned from using taxation of drugs in the early 20th century to criminalizing drug abuse with legislations and agencies like the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) mid-20th century in response to the nation's growing substance abuse issue.[47] These strict punishments for drug offenses shined light on the fact that drug abuse was a multi-faceted problem. The President's Advisory Commission on Narcotics and Drug Abuse of 1963 addressed the need for a medical solution to drug abuse. However, drug abuse continued to be enforced by the federal government through agencies such as the DEA and further legislations such as The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984, and Anti-Drug Abuse Acts. Narcissistic, Borderline, and Psychopathic Personality Types in Addiction Treatment, Part 1
Unfortunately, only 20% of those who abuse alcohol will ever get help. Part of the reason that many people choose not to get help may be the blurred lines between socially acceptable drinking and alcoholism. While any usage of illegal drugs is considered a problem, a certain amount of alcohol usage is considered normal and acceptable. For more information about how much alcohol is safe to consume and how to tell if you or a loved one qualify as having an alcohol use disorder, read our guide to alcohol addiction.

Remember though, overcoming alcoholism is a process. Less than half of individuals relapse after achieving one year of sobriety. That number reduces to less than 15 percent who relapse after five years of sobriety. For the greatest chance of long-term sobriety after completing an inpatient or outpatient program, you should participate in local support groups and continue with counseling. Treating alcoholism is an investment in your future. It will not only make a huge difference in your life, but also the lives of those around you such as family members and friends. Best drug rehab centers in ny - Addiction treatment and recovery New York
Treatment should address more than just your drug abuse. Addiction affects your whole life, including your relationships, career, health, and psychological well-being. Treatment success depends on developing a new way of living and addressing the reasons why you turned to drugs in the first place. For example, your drug dependency may have developed from a desire to manage pain or to cope with stress, in which case you’ll need to find a healthier way to relieve pain or to handle stressful situations.
Be upfront about your history of drug use when seeking medical treatment. If you need a medical or dental procedure done, be upfront and find a provider who will work with you in either prescribing alternatives or the absolute minimum medication necessary. You should never feel ashamed or humiliated about previous drug use or be denied medication for pain; if that happens, find another provider. Drug Rehab Near Me

As for programme length, residential rehab usually lasts between four and twelve weeks. Many experts believe that shorter programmes do not give patients enough time to recover while longer programmes run the risk of institutionalising patients and making them fearful of returning home. The one exception for longer stays is dual diagnosis. People recovering from a dual diagnosis circumstance may require longer stays.
According to NIDA, genetic factors are responsible for 40 to 60 percent of a person’s vulnerability to drug addiction. Studies show that a person’s predisposition to drug addiction positively correlates to their degree of genetic similarity to a relative who has a history of drug dependence or addiction. Mental disorders and medical conditions are also risk factors.
The second reason is because you want to do your recovery on your own. You've always been self-reliant and you want to be self-reliant in your recovery. But recovery involves learning to ask for help. Doing it on your own is overrated. You need to ask for help from your doctor, treatment program, 12 step group, and sponsor. Antabuse is just one more thing you can use. It is not an alternative to your supports. It complements them.
Some drug abuse facts and statistics show a significant and steady increase in American opioid use, contributing to the nation’s growing opioid crisis. The CDC reports a 29.7 percent increase in opioid-overdose emergency room visits from July 2016 to September 2017. Wisconsin and Delaware saw the largest rise in overdose emergency room visits, with an increase of 109 and 105 percent respectively.
Withdrawal is the body's reaction to abstaining from a substance upon which a person has developed a dependence syndrome. When dependence has developed, cessation of substance-use produces an unpleasant state, which promotes continued drug use through negative reinforcement; i.e., the drug is used to escape or avoid re-entering the associated withdrawal state. The withdrawal state may include physical-somatic symptoms (physical dependence), emotional-motivational symptoms (psychological dependence), or both. Chemical and hormonal imbalances may arise if the substance is not re-introduced. Psychological stress may also result if the substance is not re-introduced.[citation needed] Infants also suffer from substance withdrawal, known as Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), which can have severe and life-threatening effects. Addiction to drugs and alcohol in expectant mothers not only causes NAS, but also an array of other issues which can continually affect the infant throughout his/her lifetime.[13]
Withdrawal is medically supervised and supported by our on-site nurses. For certain cases, we make use of medical aids to render the process much easier and safer. For opiate withdrawals we use suboxone, and for Benzodiazepine withdrawal we follow a modified version of the Ashton protocol. Alcohol withdrawal is medically supervised and medication is given to eliminate the risk of seizure and stroke. We take every measure to ensure that this first, important stage towards drug addiction recovery is a comfortable and safe one. To find out more about the detox program at Searidge please call us at 1-866-777-9614.
Both issues are exceedingly dangerous; neither should be ignored. Drug abuse turns into drug addiction, and both problems are deadly in their own right. If your loved one is struggling with drug abuse or addiction – no matter what their drug of choice – contact us at Axis today to learn more about how we can provide the healing options that will change their life for the better.
Inpatient usually offers more services, but it tends to cost more. Outpatient is a less-expensive option that's generally safe and effective for people with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal. It works best if your physical and mental health is good, your home is stable, you have support at home, and you don’t have a long history of problem drinking. Drug Addiction : How to Recover from Alcohol Addiction
Our highly qualified treatment team possess extensive clinical experience in treating alcohol addiction, and are able to deliver a wide range of established techniques to help you to address your alcohol addiction symptoms, and resolve the underlying causes and triggers for your alcohol addiction. We ensure that each individual who seeks support with us is placed at the centre of their alcohol addiction treatment and rehabilitation journey and is involved in any decisions that are made about their care. This ensures that you benefit from a truly collaborative and personalised treatment experience and the most positive outcomes for you as an individual. Our non-judgemental, highly compassionate addiction treatment environments provide you with the ideal setting in which to address your challenges and achieve and full and sustainable recovery.
Even though our primary choice is to end the struggle of drug addiction through abstinence, we realize that for some this may not be possible. What makes Searidge Drug Rehab stand out from all other drug rehabs is that we understand there are some that may need further guidance with anti drug addiction medication. We work with caring physicians, psychiatrists and nurses that will give you compassionate care in a non-judgemental environment. Therefore, we are open and willing to work with you based on your individual needs and where appropriate, work with anti-addiction medications to assist you in controlling cravings that help prevent relapse. Pharmacotherapy treatments can help make things a little easier by taking the focus away from your drug addiction towards your counselling and alternative therapies so that you get better, faster.
For those searching specifically for drug rehabilitation, there are many treatment options available. Drug rehabilitation can include a variety of programs, levels of care and therapy options. Drug rehab centers can help those searching for help with comprehensive medical and emotional care. By working closely with clients to understand the underlying causes of addiction, a drug and alcohol treatment center can help clients heal by addressing the roots of substance use disorder. Quit alcohol with simple home remedies
We strive to be fully transparent in all of our relationships. To that end, we want you to be aware that AddictionCenter is compensated by Delphi Behavioral Health Group for the work AddictionCenter does in the development and operation of this site. Delphi Behavioral Health Group was carefully vetted and selected to be a trusted provider and partner with AddictionCenter, based on the quality of treatment that Delphi provides and their rigorous commitment to ethical practices. Learn more about why Delphi Behavioral Health Group is a trusted provider with AddictionCenter. Best Drug Rehab Centers Reviews - Most Successful Rehab Programs California
We are active in supporting research into improving the lives of those struggling with addiction. Searidge Foundation and our sister rehab Sobriety Home located in Godmanchester, Quebec are highly regarded as the leading alcohol and drug rehab facilities in Canada. We support Florida State University (FSU) in their research into addiction and anxiety disorder. We are also involved with Dr. Brunet, of McGill University, and his leading scientific research on PTSD and addiction memory. Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong | Johann Hari
Remember though, overcoming alcoholism is a process. Less than half of individuals relapse after achieving one year of sobriety. That number reduces to less than 15 percent who relapse after five years of sobriety. For the greatest chance of long-term sobriety after completing an inpatient or outpatient program, you should participate in local support groups and continue with counseling. Treating alcoholism is an investment in your future. It will not only make a huge difference in your life, but also the lives of those around you such as family members and friends.
Assess how you’re experiencing the craving. Sit in a comfortable chair with your feet flat on the floor and your hands in a relaxed position. Take a few deep breaths and focus your attention inward. Allow your attention to wander through your body. Notice the part of your body where you’re experiencing the craving and what the sensations are like. Tell yourself what it feels like. For example, “My craving is in my mouth and nose and in my stomach.”
Drug detox: Detox, short for detoxification, is the first phase in many substance abuse treatment programs. During detox, patients are monitored by professionals during their withdrawal from drugs. Medications, nutritional supplementation and fluid replacement may be provided to relieve withdrawal symptoms. At the same time, counseling is provided to encourage the patient to move forward to the next phase of rehabilitation.
Traditional alcohol treatment programs rely on evidence-based strategies such as psychotherapy, behavioral modification therapy, peer group counseling, nutritional counseling and 12-step programs. Rehabilitation begins with detox, a cleansing process that allows the patient to withdraw safely and comfortably from alcohol. After detox, the patient participates in a structured series of therapies that are designed to help him or her modify destructive behaviors and create a sober life. A rehab jail for heroin addicts
Depending on your treatment priorities, you may also want to consider a facility that shares your philosophy. For instance, some people prefer faith-based rehabs if their religion is important to them. Others may choose to enroll in a holistic treatment center that utilizes alternative and complementary practices, such as acupuncture, meditation, and yoga. Regardless of the treatment program you choose, it’s important to confirm that it possesses the above-mentioned qualities.
Living on a limited income is challenging enough; having to deal with recovery from a drug or alcohol addiction on a limited income is even more so. Finding help with treatment can make ease some of this burden, and it can help those struggling with addiction to get their lives back. Once recovery is in progress, it can help to be surrounded by others who understand and who can help the recovering individual through the process, such as by participating in self-help groups and other counseling programs.
Holistic recovery programs focus not just on treating alcoholism as a physical or psychological disease, but on healing the body, mind and spirit. In addition to the core components of alcohol rehab — individual and group therapy, family counseling, 12-step meetings and behavioral modification — treatment addresses the patient’s spiritual and emotional needs through activities like art therapy, recreational therapy, guided meditation, yoga, acupuncture and massage. The goal of holistic therapy is to promote healing on all levels so the patient can build a meaningful, rewarding life. Drug Rehab Ward AR - Before And After | Drug Rehabilitation Centers Near Me
Outpatient drug rehab provides patients with a more loosely defined schedule. This form of treatment allows patients to stay with their support system at home and maintain a limited presence at work or school. Both options offer patients a different range of therapeutic options and counseling with the goal of maintained abstinence and long-term recovery.
In the past, alcohol rehab programs provided a standardized set of treatments for each patient, regardless of age, gender, psychiatric history, or demographic group. Today, alcohol treatment programs and alcohol treatment centers have become more specialized in order to meet the needs of a diverse, highly varied group of patients. Choosing a course of treatment has become more complicated, but the results of a careful search are likely to be more successful — and more satisfying to the individual.

As the brain matures, experiences prune excess neural connections while strengthening those that are used more often. Many scientists think that this process contributes to the steady reduction in gray matter volume seen during adolescence (depicted as the yellow to blue transition in the figure). As environmental forces help determine which connections will wither and which will thrive, the brain circuits that emerge become more efficient. However, this is a process that can cut both ways because not all tasks are desirable. The environment is like an artist who creates a sculpture by chipping away excess marble; and just like bad artists can produce bad art, environments with negative factors (like drugs, malnutrition, bullying, or sleep deprivation) can lead to efficient but potentially harmful circuits that conspire against a person's well-being. Coming KLEAN: Stories of Overcoming Addiction, The Documentary (Rated R)
One study performed in Norway demonstrated that brief advice given early can affect gamma glutamyl transferase levels and reported alcohol consumption. Early warning makes a difference to persons who drink heavily. In a study of 200 workers with alcoholism, recalling a physician's warning about drinking at the beginning of the study was associated with a better prognosis 2 years later. Unfortunately, less than 25% had received warnings from their physicians, again illustrating the problem of missed diagnosis.
Patients who have tried AA may have had a bad past experience. Patients should try at least 5-10 different meetings before giving up on the AA approach because each meeting is different. For example, women often do better at meetings for women only because the issues for female patients with alcoholism are different from the issues for male patients with alcoholism. A meeting in the suburbs might not be appropriate for someone from the inner city and vice versa. Alcohol Rehab Near Me
Withdrawal can begin soon after the cessation of drug use and will likely peak in intensity in the first 24 to 48 hours. If severe withdrawal is left unchecked, in some instances it can be fatal. Anyone experiencing the symptoms of withdrawal should be under a doctor’s care, and for drug addicts entering treatment medical detox is often required before therapy for addiction can begin.
A large body of scientific evidence has been gathered in recent years to show that addiction can run in families. In fact, children of alcohol-addicted parents are four times more likely to develop alcohol addiction in later life than those born to parents without alcohol addictions. How this works is complex, and there is no one ‘alcohol gene’ to blame for this; instead a number of genetic variations, which mean some individuals are more pre-disposed to alcoholism than others.
In the not so distant past, treatment for alcoholism would have required a person to stay in hospital for an unknown period of time. Today, a number of treatments for alcoholism exist that do not require a person to stay in hospital at all. There are lots of different types of programs, some involve the person committing for a couple of hours a day over several weeks, while others require up to 20 hours of attendance a week over an indefinite amount of time. If the person is considered low-risk, to both themselves and others, outpatient care under the supervision of a doctor is usually the best course of treatment. Inpatient programs usually take place in a physiatrist hospital, although some general hospitals run them too. There are lots of different types of programs, some involve the person committing for a couple of hours a day over several weeks. There are also specialist alcohol addiction treatment centers, which offer the same services as a hospital. Individuals who are usually recommended for inpatient treatment are usually those who are suffering severe withdrawals or who have had several failed rehabilitation attempts in the past. If the person suffers from a psychiatric disorder or comes from a family of alcoholics, inpatient care is usually a wise option. Inpatient care usually involves a medically supervised detoxification, which is managed with the use of medication. Cognitive behavioral therapy and an introduction to outside support groups are also an integral part of the alcoholism treatment. People who receive outpatient care will generally undergo the same treatment as those who are admitted for inpatient treatment, although the detoxification medication will vary. Drug Rehab Rochester Ny | Before And After | Drug Rehabilitation Centers Near Me
Many soldiers in the Vietnam War were introduced to heroin and many developed a dependency to the substance which survived even when they returned to the US. Technological advances in travel meant that this increased demand for heroin in the US could now be met. Furthermore, as technology advanced, more drugs were synthesized and discovered, opening up new avenues to substance dependency k.[41]
Nitrous oxide, also sometimes known as laughing gas, is a legally available gas used for purposes that include anesthesia during certain dental and surgical procedures, as well as food preparation and the fueling of rocket and racing engines. Substance abusers also sometimes use the gas as an inhalant. Like all other inhalants, it's popular because it provides consciousness-altering effects while allowing users to avoid some of the legal issues surrounding illicit or illegal drugs of abuse. Abuse of nitrogenous oxide can produce significant short-term and long-term damage to human health, including a form of oxygen starvation, called hypoxia, brain damage, and a serious vitamin B12 deficiency that can lead to nerve damage. Drug and Alcohol Addiction - "Audio Rehab" - Brainwave Entrainment Music Therapy
In the precontemplation phase, the individual does not express any interest in the need for change. Many individuals with substance use problems are firmly entrenched in this stage. The options in dealing with patients in this stage are limited and include pointing out the discrepancy between patient action and patient goals, suggesting that the patient bring a family member to the next appointment, and suggesting a 2-week abstinence trial. Involuntarily Committed to Drug  & Alcohol Treatment (2018)

Treatment is sometimes intensive at first, where patients attend multiple outpatient sessions each week. After completing intensive treatment, patients transition to regular outpatient treatment, which meets less often and for fewer hours per week to help sustain their recovery. In September 2017, the FDA permitted marketing of the first mobile application, reSET®, to help treat substance use disorders. This application is intended to be used with outpatient treatment to treat alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and stimulant substance use disorders. In December 2018, the FDA cleared a mobile medical application, reSET®, to help treat opioid use disorders. This application is a prescription cognitive behavioral therapy and should be used in conjunction with treatment that includes buprenorphine and contingency management. Read more about reSET® in this FDA News Release.

A good residential treatment programme takes mental health seriously. Facility staff recognise that the mental health of patients will be impacted by treatment one way or the other. As such, they do everything they can to ensure that the impacts are positive. Remember, one of the goals of residential treatment is to treat patients holistically. That means treating them in body, mind, and spirit.

All drugs–nicotine, cocaine, marijuana and others–affect the brain’s “reward” circuit, which is part of the limbic system. This area of the brain affects instinct and mood. Drugs target this system, which causes large amounts of dopamine—a brain chemical that helps regulate emotions and feelings of pleasure—to flood the brain. This flood of dopamine is what causes a “high.” It’s one of the main causes of drug addiction.
The specific medicines prescribed will vary depending upon your own particular experience of withdrawal and the symptoms you are manifesting, and it may be that certain medications will not be appropriate depending on your substance of abuse or your own personal health history; an experienced medical professional will be able to make those decisions to ensure you go through withdrawal as safely as possible. What happens in rehab?
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