Psychoanalysis, a psychotherapeutic approach to behavior change developed by Sigmund Freud and modified by his followers, has also offered an explanation of substance abuse. This orientation suggests the main cause of the addiction syndrome is the unconscious need to entertain and to enact various kinds of homosexual and perverse fantasies, and at the same time to avoid taking responsibility for this. It is hypothesized specific drugs facilitate specific fantasies and using drugs is considered to be a displacement from, and a concomitant of, the compulsion to masturbate while entertaining homosexual and perverse fantasies. The addiction syndrome is also hypothesized to be associated with life trajectories that have occurred within the context of teratogenic processes, the phases of which include social, cultural and political factors, encapsulation, traumatophobia, and masturbation as a form of self-soothing.[39] Such an approach lies in stark contrast to the approaches of social cognitive theory to addiction—and indeed, to behavior in general—which holds human beings to regulate and control their own environmental and cognitive environments, and are not merely driven by internal, driving impulses. Additionally, homosexual content is not implicated as a necessary feature in addiction.


It is important that you know how to act when triggers or cravings present themselves. If you have a plan in place, it can help to prevent a full-blown relapse. It may be that you will get in touch with your counsellor or sponsor, or perhaps distraction will help. You might find that going for a walk or doing something else to keep you busy can help the cravings subside.
Certain opioid medications such as methadone and more recently buprenorphine (In America, "Subutex" and "Suboxone") are widely used to treat addiction and dependence on other opioids such as heroin, morphine or oxycodone. Methadone and buprenorphine are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use, and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration, and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction. Both drugs may be used as maintenance medications (taken for an indefinite period of time), or used as detoxification aids.[9] All available studies collected in the 2005 Australian National Evaluation of Pharmacotherapies for Opioid Dependence suggest that maintenance treatment is preferable,[9] with very high rates (79–100%)[9] of relapse within three months of detoxification from LAAM, buprenorphine, and methadone.[9][10]
For those searching specifically for drug rehabilitation, there are many treatment options available. Drug rehabilitation can include a variety of programs, levels of care and therapy options. Drug rehab centers can help those searching for help with comprehensive medical and emotional care. By working closely with clients to understand the underlying causes of addiction, a drug and alcohol treatment center can help clients heal by addressing the roots of substance use disorder.

We tend to recommend inpatient treatment to patients suffering from alcohol addiction. An inpatient programme offers a safe and secure environment free from distraction. It provides the ideal atmosphere for allowing patients to focus solely on recovery without having to worry about anything else. And because inpatient treatment is more focused, it better facilitates the kind of long-term recovery we want for our patients. The 12 Steps According To Russell Brand
Where alcoholics are concerned, their brains have become so accustomed to dealing with alcohol that the volume of chemicals being produced to overcome the effects of alcohol is excessive. As blood alcohol levels start to fall, those same brain chemicals start causing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. The only two solutions are to either consume more alcohol or wait it out until the body readjusts.
Once you determined whether or not your loved one requires an inpatient drug treatment program and decided how long he or she should stay, what else should you look for in an effective drug rehab program? There are a number of characteristics that signify a positive, safe, and efficient environment for your loved one that will promote growth and healing physically, mentally and emotionally.
Drug rehab centers range from very basic facilities to luxury treatment centers. The type of center a patient attends depends upon his or her budget and level of insurance coverage. While luxury centers offer more amenities than basic facilities, they are not always the best treatment centers. Patients should investigate a rehab facility before making a final decision.
Changes in the brain that support physical and psychological dependency on mind-altering substances are the direct cause of addiction, but those changes do not occur at random. Addiction experts believe drug addiction emerges from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, although one factor or the other may be strong enough to make a person vulnerable to addiction in some instances.
Addiction is an all-consuming disease, using much of an individual’s time, energy and resources. There are many physical, mental and emotional signs of addiction. If you or a loved one are experiencing a combination of these signs, treatment may be a stepping stone for long-term recovery. Looking for signs and symptoms of drug abuse can be the first step toward identifying an addiction: Inside NHS detox centre - Victoria Derbyshire
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